Inward Facing Cameras in Public Transportation - What our PDPA said or Did Not Said


Recently, the husband of a famous singer in Hong Kong, who himself is also a singer, was caught snuggling and smooching with another woman in a taxi. For those who have been following the entertainment scene in Hong Kong, this story will ring a bell.


A video of their actions were captured in a camera mounted in the taxi where they are in and this video was apparently made available to a tabloid who went on to expose the said video in their publication.


This brings us to the question - Do we have our own regulations on inward facing cameras in taxis and other public transportation including ride sharing services?


A quick check on the websites of both the Personal Data Protection Commission (PDPC) and the Ministry of Transport (MOT) does not seems to indicate Malaysia has issued any guidelines on inward facing cameras in taxis and other public transportation including ride sharing services.


Back in 2014, PDPC issued a Proposal Paper seeking public consultation under the heading Guide on the Management of CCTV under the Personal Data Protection Act 2010 where it aims to provide guidelines for an individual or organisation in the management of CCTV under the PDPA. There were no guidelines issued subsequent to the Proposal Paper nor were there any guidelines issued in relation to the subject matter.


Prior to this recent episode, the Association of Taxi Industry Development, set up by taxi owners in Hong Kong, had in fact, back in May 2016 called on the Hong Kong government to make CCTV mandatory for taxis after a pilot scheme that ran for a month with cameras installed in 20 taxis was hailed a success. The association took advice from the Office of the Privacy Commissioner for Personal Data whereby drivers are required to notify passengers to the presence of such cameras, such as through a "prominent notice" in the vehicle or through a booking confirmation, ensure that the recordings are secure and viewing done in appropriate circumstances, such as at the request of the police. Privacy was already cited back then in May 2016 about this but apparently no regulation or assurance was proposed or implemented. 


Everyone was so caught up with the expose of the celebrity couple that a lot of questions were left unanswered such as:-

  1. was it a taxi or a ride hailing vehicle or a private vehicle?

  2. if it is a taxi, did the vehicle displayed a notice prominently to warn passengers that the taxi have video cameras?

  3. how did the tabloid have possession of the video? Did it hacked into the taxi system or the taxi driver released the video to the tabloid in exchange for monetary rewards?

Following the brouhaha, and it appears to be an afterthought, the Hong Kong Transport Department issued a statement to say that a guideline is now being drafted for the taxi sector regarding installing such devices in their vehicles because of privacy concerns.


Singapore was way ahead of Hong Kong in addressing this issue. Their Personal Data Protection Commission (PDPC) had in April 2018 issued advisory guidelines allowing taxis and ride sharing vehicles to install inward facing cameras with the condition that drivers are not allowed to upload videos on social media. Immediately in the following month, in May 2018, their Land Transport Authority (LTA) issued a guideline complementing the advisory guidelines issued by the PDPC, requiring taxis, private hire cars, and buses to seek LTA's approval before installing inward-facing video cameras in their vehicles.


The LTA guidelines were more detail and it sets out the following for the vehicle owners to adhere to:-

  1. These devices can be installed only at LTA-approved installation centres to ensure that the inward-facing cameras are installed according to the manufacturer's and LTA's requirements, and to prevent them from being tampered with,

  2. The recording devices have to be secured such that unauthorised people cannot get access to or download the data. For example, the memory card slot should be locked, and access to the micro USB port should be blocked,

  3. They also must be installed in a fixed position and cannot be rotated to capture comprising visual records of passengers, nor must they have any audio recording function to prevent recording of passengers' conversations,